Sports injuries are injuries to muscles and skeletal system of the body caused by sports activities.
Sports injury that often occurs is:
- Broken bones due to pressure
- Shin splints
- Knee runners
- Hamstring Injury
- Back altit weightlifting
- Tennis elbow
- Head injury
- Injury feet.
Sports injuries are caused by:
- The wrong training methods
- Structural abnormalities that suppress certain body parts more than other body parts
- Weakness in muscles, tendons and ligaments.
Most injuries are caused by long-term use, where occur repeatedly pressing the movement of sensitive tissue.
The method of training is the most common cause of injury to muscles and joints. The patient did not provide sufficient recovery time after exercise or not to stop practicing when there is pain.
Every time the muscles are stressed by intensive activities, several injured muscles and other muscles use stored energy reserves as glycogen carbohydrates.
Healing of muscle fibers and glycogen replacement takes more than 2 days.
Most organized sports programs alternately; day doing heavy exercise, the next day resting or doing light exercise.
Only swimmers who can do heavy exercises and light every day without injury. Ampung the possibility of water helps to protect muscles and joints of the swimmers.
Structural abnormalities can cause a person more susceptible to sports injuries because of improper pressure on certain body parts.
For example, if the length of both legs are not equal, then the hips and knees in the longer legs will have greater pressure.
Biochemical factors that cause injury foot, leg and hip are pronation (playback feet into the ground).
Degree of pronation is normal and prevent injuries by helping to channel power to the entire foot stomping.
Excessive pronation can cause pain in the feet, knees and legs. Very flexible ankle so that when walking or running, curved legs and feet touching the ground to be flat.
If someone has a stiff ankle, then the opposite will happen, namely the lack of pronation.
Legs seem to have very high arches and can not absorb shock well, thus increasing the risk of small cracks in the foot and leg bones (fractures due to pressure).
Muscle weakness, tendon & ligaments.
If a pressure greater than its natural strength, the muscles, tendons and ligaments will experience a tear.
Joints are more susceptible to injury if the muscles and ligaments that menyokongnya weak.
Fragile bones due to osteoporosis fractures easily (fraktkur).
Strengthening exercises can help prevent injury.
The only way to strengthen the muscles is practicing against the prisoners, the strength gradually increased.
The pain first appeared when the muscle fibers or tendons of a limited number began experiencing tear.
Stop the exercise when pain occurs, will reduce injuries in these fibers, so that recovery occurs sooner. If exercise is not immediately terminated, then the amount of fiber that will tear more, so the damage was more extensive and recovery becomes longer.
Diagnosis based on symptoms, information from patients about the activities done and the results of physical examination.
Diagnostic tests performed included:
- CT scan
- Check with other computer assistance to assess the function of muscles and joints.
Immediate treatment for almost all sports injuries is rest, ice packs and by appointment.
The wound immediately rested to minimize bleeding and swelling and to prevent the increased severity of injury.
Ice cubes causes the blood vessels contract, helping reduce inflammation and pain.
Wrapping the injured area with elastic bandage and lifted up above the heart, will help reduce swelling.
Compressing with ice cubes made for 10 minutes. An elastic bandage can be wrapped loosely around the bag of ice cubes.
Part of injury remained elevated, but the ice pack is released for 10 minutes, after it is compressed again for 10 minutes. This is done alternately in time 1-1.5 hours.
Above actions can be repeated as many as several times during the first 24 hours.
Ice reduces pain and swelling in several ways.
Injured area have swollen because of fluid seeping from the vessel. By causing the blood vessels mengkerutnya, the cold will reduce the tendency merembesnya thus reducing the amount of fluid and swelling of fluid in the affected area.
Lowering the temperature of the skin around the affected area can reduce pain and muscle spasms.
Cold also reduces tissue damage due to a slow cellular processes.
Compressing the rocks are too long can damage the tissue.
If the temperature is very low (up to about 15 degrees Celsius), the skin will give the opposite reaction, which causes the blood vessels dilate. The skin looks red, felt warm and itchy, can also hurt.
These effects usually occur within 9-16 minutes after the compressing and will decrease in about 4-8 minutes after the ice removed.
Therefore, the ice must be removed before this effect occurs or after 10 minutes, new dikompreskan again 10 minutes later.
Corticosteroid injection into the injured joint or surrounding tissue can reduce pain and swelling.
But these injections can slow healing, increases the risk of damage to tendons and cartilage and aggravate the injury because it allows people to use the injured joint until fully recovered.
Physical therapy can include heating, cooling, electricity, sound waves, withdrawal (traction) or exercise in the water, can be done in addition to exercise therapy.
The duration of physical therapy depends on the weight and complexity of the injury.
Activities or sports that cause injury should be avoided until the injury healed completely.
Better to change the type of sport than not doing physical activity at all, because it did not conduct activities can cause loss of muscle mass, strength and durability.
Warm-up before doing weight training can help prevent injury.
Mild exercise for 3-10 minutes to warm up the muscles so the muscles more supple and resilient to injury.
Active warming methods are more effective than passive methods such as hot water, heating pads, ultrasound or infrared light. Passive methods do not cause increased blood circulation significantly.
Cooling is to reduce gradually the exercise before the exercise is stopped.
Dizziness prevent cooling by keeping the blood flow. If heavy exercise is stopped abruptly, blood will collect in the leg veins and for a while causing reduced blood flow to the head.
Cooling down also helps remove waste products (such as lactic acid from muscle), but the cooling does not seem to prevent sore muscles the next day, which is caused by damage to muscle fibers.
Stretching exercises do not seem to prevent injury, but it serves to extend the muscles so that muscles can contract more effectively and work better.
To avoid muscle damage due to stretching, stretching should be done after the warm-up or after exercise, and every movement stretches held for 10 count.
Upholstery shoes (ortotik) can often fix problems such as foot pronation.
This coating can be flexible in character, rather stiff or rigid and the length varies, according to the used shoes.
Good running shoes have:
- A rigid heel angle to control the movement of the rear leg
- A buffer along the coating to prevent excessive pronation
- A hole that diberik cushioning shoe for ankle support.
Ortotik sizes usually number 1 is smaller than the size of used shoes.
Hope this information can be useful.